Far from Turing? Turing’s Paradigm in Physiology
Turing’s original model was a linear instability in a 2 variable PDE, describing imaginary “morphogens” reacting and diffusing in a 2D domain. Since the discovery of physiological morphogens in the past few decades, even this simple model has had successful applications. The growing maturity of the applications has now led modelers to more complex scenarios. Developments have included the extension of the original model to include cell density variables, the inclusion of mechanical factors, the extension to 3D spatial domains, and the study of patterns, such as isolated spots, that occur far from the linear instability first studied by Turing. We will review examples of these new developments in the field of physiology and pathophysiology.