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Embracing Low Inertia for Power System Frequency Control: A Dynamic Droop Approach

Presented by: 
Enrique Mallada
Thursday 2nd May 2019 - 13:30 to 14:30
INI Seminar Room 1
Co-Authors: Yan Jiang, Richard Pates, and Fernando Paganini

Abstract: The transition into renewable energy sources -with limited or no inertia- is seen as potentially threatening to classical methods for achieving grid synchronization. A widely embraced approach to mitigate this problem is to mimic inertial response using grid-connected inverters. That is, introduce virtual inertia to restore the stiffness that the system used to enjoy. In this talk, we seek to challenge this approach and advocate towards taking advantage of the system’s low inertia to restore frequency steady state without incurring in excessive control efforts. With this aim in mind, we develop an analysis and design framework for inverter-based frequency control. We define several performance metrics of practical relevance for power engineers that contemplate system disturbances and measurement noise, and systematically evaluate the performance of standard control strategies, such as virtual inertia and droop control. Our analysis unveils the relatively limited role of inertia on improving performance as well as the inability of droop control to enhance performance without incurring in considerable steady-state control efforts. To solve this problem, we propose a novel dynamic droop control (iDroop) for grid-connected inverters -exploiting classical lead/lag compensation from control theory- that can significantly outperform existing solutions with comparable -and in many cases significantly smaller- control efforts.
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University of Cambridge Research Councils UK
    Clay Mathematics Institute London Mathematical Society NM Rothschild and Sons