At the heart of computer systems such as browsers, mobile phones or chip-and-pin payment cards, is a cryptographic hash function, which is an algorithm that maps arbitrary data to relatively small numbers. (For example, a hash function might map a multi-megabyte digital movie to its hash value, an integer in the range between zero and 2160 , say.) The input data can be arbitrarily large but the hash value has to be of relatively small fixed size. For use in security systems, two properties must hold. First, it must be “computationally hard” to identify input data from its hash value (pre-image resistance) and, second, it must be “computationally hard” to identify two inputs that hash to the same value (collision resistance).
Cryptographic hash functions have an important role in technologies that rely upon digital signatures. Like their hand-written counterparts, digital signatures authenticate the source of a message or document and confirm its integrity and completeness. But in practice, it is its hash value that is signed rather than the document itself. Thus, if different documents have the same hash value, a recipient may be led to believe that one document had been signed when in fact the sender had signed a different document with the same hash value, with consequent breach of security.
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Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge CB3 0EH United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1223 335999 Email: email@example.com
INI is a creative collaborative space which is occupied by up to fifty-five mathematical scientists at any one time (and many more when there is a workshop). Some of them may not have met before and others may not realise the relevance of other research to their own work.
INI is especially important as a forum where early-career researchers meet senior colleagues and form networks that last a lifetime.
Here you can learn about all activities past, present and future, watch live seminars and submit your own proposals for research programmes.
Within this section of the website you should find all the information required to arrange and plan your visit to the Institute. If you have any further questions, or are unable to find the information you require, please get in touch with the relevant staff member or our Reception team via our contact pages.
INI and its programme participants produce a range of publications to communicate information about activities and events, publish research outcomes, and document case studies which are written for a non-technical audience. You will find access to them all in this section.
The Isaac Newton Institute aims to maximise the benefit of its scientific programmes to the UK mathematical science community in a variety of ways.
Whether spreading research opportunities through its network of correspondents, offering summer schools to early career researchers, or hosting public-facing lectures through events such as the Cambridge Festival, there is always a great deal of activity to catch up on.
Find out about all of these endeavours in this section of the site.
There are various ways to keep up-to-date with current events and happenings at the Isaac Newton Institute. As detailed via the menu links within this section, our output covers social media streams, news articles, a regular podcast series, an online newsletter, and more detailed documents produced throughout the year.
“A world famous place for research in the mathematical sciences with a reputation for efficient management and a warm welcome for visitors”
The Isaac Newton Institute is a national and international visitor research institute. It runs research programmes on selected themes in mathematics and the mathematical sciences with applications over a wide range of science and technology. It attracts leading mathematical scientists from the UK and overseas to interact in research over an extended period.
INI has a vital national role, building on many strengths that already exist in UK universities, aiming to generate a new vitality through stimulating and nurturing research throughout the country.During each scientific programme new collaborations are made and ideas and expertise are exchanged and catalysed through lectures, seminars and informal interaction, which the INI building has been designed specifically to encourage.
For INI’s knowledge exchange arm, please see the Newton Gateway to Mathematics.
The Institute depends upon donations, as well as research grants, to support the world class research undertaken by participants in its programmes.
Fundraising activities are supported by a Development Board comprising leading figures in academia, industry and commerce.
Visit this section to learn more about how you could play a part in supporting INI’s groundbreaking research.
In this section you can find contact information, staff lists, maps and details of how to find INI’s main building in Cambridge.
Our administrative staff can help you with any queries regarding a prospective or planned visit. If you would like to discuss a proposed a research programme or other event, our senior management team will be happy to help.